Larkin

© Donal G. Burke 2013

The Larkins of east Galway are a separate and distinct family from those of the same name established from an early period elsewhere in Ireland. In the late medieval period the ‘Montor Lorkan’ (ie. ‘muintir Uí Lorcain’ or ‘people of O Lorcan’) were listed alongside the Horans, O Treacys, MacCoulohans and the principal O Madden families as owing services and dues to the O Madden chieftain of the territory of Síl Anmchadha in the east of what would later be County Galway.

Origin

The Larkin or Lorcan family of east Galway are an offshoot of the wider Uí Maine family group, whose ancestor has traditionally been held to be one Maine mór, son of Eochaidh feardaghiall, chief of a tribe of people who established themselves as the dominant group in the south-eastern region of Connacht by about the end of the fifth century.[i]

Maine mór and his descendants appear to have subjugated many of the existing tribes and peoples that inhabited their land and established a petty kingdom, covering much of the later east Galway named from their progenitor as Uí Maine (later Anglicised Hy Many). The senior-most family descended from this Maine was the O Kellys, from whom the rulers or chieftains of Uí Maine were drawn.

Within the greater Uí Maine kin group the Larkins were part of the group of families who composed the Síol Anmchadha, the ‘seed’ or progeny of Anmchadh.’[ii] Descended from Anmchadh, son of Eoghan buac, son of Cormac, son of Cairbre Crom, this last, from whom most of the senior families of the Uí Maine claim descent, reputed to have flourished about the early or mid sixth century A.D. and to have been a fifth generation descendant of Maine mór.[iii]

The principal family of this family group, the O Maddens, came to rule a part of the eastern region of Uí Maine, to be known thereafter from their common ancestor as Síl Anmchadha or ‘O Maddens County’ and later as the barony of Longford in east Galway. While the O Maddens were said to be descended from Donngalach, the eldest son of Anmchadh, the early fifteenth century Gaelic manuscript known as the Book of Lecan gives the Lorcan or Larkin family of East Galway as descended from Forbasach, younger son of Anmchadh.[iv] (The Book of Lecan gives Forbasach as the youngest of three sons of Anmchadh while Dubhaltach MacFirbisigh in his seventeenth century ‘Great Book of Irish Genealogies’ gives Forbasach or Forbhusach as the second son of Anmchadh and Fianghalach as the youngest of the three sons.)

pedigree of the early Ui Maine

Pedigree showing various prominent members of the Uí Maine, derived from MacFirbisigh’s seventeenth century ‘Great Book of Irish Genealogies.’

Pedigree showing the inter-relationship of the Siol Anmchadha

Pedigree showing the descent of the Muinter Lorcain from Forbhusach son of Anmchadh and the inter-relationship of the Síol Anmchadha, derived from the Book of Lecan. MacFirbisigh’s genealogy of the Síol Anmchadha gives Forbhusach as junior to Donnghalach but more senior than Fianghalach.

By the late medieval and early modern period the Larkin family ancestral lands were located for the most part in the region about Redmount Hill, in the parishes of Kiltormer, Donanaghta and Clonfert in Síl Anmchadha.

Tomás Ó Lorcain, who died in 1490, was described as ‘adhbhar ollamhan Ua Madadhain’, the prospective or intended Ollamh of O Madden.[v]

In the turbulent reign of Queen Elizabeth I, one Mellaghlyn O Lorkan of Moey was among those pardoned alongside the head of the O Horans of Fahy, O Horan’s son and Rory McCollo O Madden of Brackloon and others about 1570.[vi] ‘Aishe O Lorcan of Creaghwyll’ and Shane O Lorcan of Cowlkearta (modern townland of Coolcarta, parish of Clonfert) were among those issued pardons by the Crown in 1585 alongside the principal rebel Owen O Madden of Lusmagh, suggesting their having been active in his support at that time.[vii] The following year of 1586 William oge O Lorcan of Lysdoan (modern townland of Lisdooaun) was included among the many issued pardons in that year.[viii]

The general pardon issued to many of O Maddens country about 1603 in the first year of the reign of King James I in the immediate aftermath of the Nine Years War was broad enough to include such members of the wider family as John O Lurcan of Clonfert, a clerk.[ix]

Shane McWilliam oge O Lurkan was among the many slain in rebellion during the Nine Years War. As was the case with those either killed or executed in rebellion, his estate was declared forfeit and part of those lands, a half quarter of Carrowgar, was part of extensive lands about the country granted to Gerald, Earl of Kildare in March 1610.[x] Killed in 1598, this man appears to be the son of that William oge of Lisdooaun whose lands lay on the south eastern foot of Redmont Hill. His son’s lands lay adjacent to Lisdooaun, about Killinehy. (Carrowgar would be amalgamated with a number of other denominations later in the century to form the demesne about Eyrecourt castle.) Near Carrowgar, the lands of Mulbrowny or Mulrony O Lorkan lay at the western and southern base of Redmount Hill. At his death in August 1602 he was seised in fee of the quarter of Gortnemoany, the quarter of Lishdowan, one quarter in Corballymore and a third of the quarter of Ruaghan. Following his death Mulbrowny’s daughter Rose or Rosa entered upon his property. She appears to have been aged only twelve years at that time and later married Dermot O Kelly of Crossconnell in the nearby parish of Clontuskert. By the early 1640s these lands were in the ownership of the Kings County landholder Hugh Dallaghane or others.

Early seventeenth century

The principal landholder of the family about 1618 was Rory O Lorkan of Craghkoill (ie. Craughwell, parish of Kiltormer), gentleman, who held one quarter of Craghkoill, one fifth cartron of Rahin and five twelfth parts of Feagh in Longford barony. Only two other O Lorkans are given as landholders; John oge O Lorkan and James O Lorkan of Cullecartan in Galway Co., gentlemen, were jointly possessed of a half quarter of Cullecartan in Longford barony, and alongside Thomas O Kelly of Clontuskert, jointly held a third quarter of Leire.[xi] Two decades later Roger  (an Anglicisation of the Christian name Rory) O Larkan was proprietor of the quarter of Craughill in the late 1630s.[xii] This would appear to be the same man as Rory mcDuggin or mcDungin O Larkan who held acres at that same time in the denominations of Dangin alias Gangin and in Duggin (ie. Dangin) alias Skeaghnagechye and in Lissreaghane in the parish of Kiltormer and may have been the same man as Roger mcMulrony O Larkan who held lands in ‘Teagh,’ (recte; Feagh) also in the parish of Kiltormer and a half cartron in Rathin in the parish of Kilquain and one cartron of the quarter of Annaghcalla in the parish of Clonfert at that time.[xiii]

‘Gillermore’ alias Nehemias Larkin, by way of his guardian John Pierce, was ordered by the Cromwellian authorities in the late 1650s to transplant from the parish of Kiltormer and allocated approximately two hundred profitable Irish acres in the nearby parish of Kilquain.[xiv] The same man appears also to have been allocated nineteen profitable Irish acres about that time in the parish of Duniry in Co. Galway. This Nehemias would appear to be the same man who, when of age, married Evelina Donnellan and had at least one son who became a Franciscan friar attached to the friary at Meelick. He died in or before 1671 as he was evidently the same Nehemias Lorcan of Tumsallagh (ie. modern townland of Timsallagh or Spring Grove in the parish of Kilquain) to the executor of whose will a grant of probate was issued in that year.

Bryan Lorkan was ordered to transplant from Dangin in the parish of Kiltormer and allocated lands of sixty-seven Irish acres in the parish of Killallaghtan.[xv] The family do not appear to have lost their connection with Dangin, however, as one of the family would still be seated there at the start of the eighteenth century.

This Bryan Lorkan may have been the same man as Bernard Lorcan, one of the most prominent members of the family in the mid seventeenth century, who married Mary Lawrence and had at least two sons who joined the Franciscans; Bernard and John.  (The Christian name Brian would appear to be given as Bernard or Bernardus in the obituary book of the friars at Meelick.) Both brothers were received into the Order together on 7th September 1682, Bernard at the age of twenty-one years and John aged eighteen years. The elder son appears to be that ‘Master Bernard Lorcan who, carried off by a malady of long continuance, went to the Bridegroom this sixth day, which falls upon Easter day in this year 1683.’[xvi] The couples young daughter Siliota Lorcan, ‘a devout virgin and much attached to (the) Convent of Meelick, received the cord of St. Francis in 1682 but died in January 1684. Their younger son, John Lorcan, died at Meelick on the 9th August 1755, aged ninety-one years and was buried in the sacristy.

The Lorcan Chapel at Meelick

The principal branch of the name contributed to the erection of a small side chapel at Meelick friary in close proximity to the high altar, wherein members of the family would be interred. Restoration and rebuilding works to the main friary church of Meelick were incomplete and not progressing when the two children of Bernard and Mary Lorcan were buried there. When Bernard Lorcan, husband of Mary Lawrence, died in 1683, he was ‘buried in his chapel or the sepulchre of his predecessors’ at the friary.[xvii] However, if early work on a family chapel had begun some time before work recommenced in 1687 on the principal friary church nave, it would not appear to have developed to any great extent by then. An undated article of agreement between Captain Roger Lorcan and Daniel Sweeney to build a chapel at Meelick was signed by Fr. Thady Lorcan and witnessed by one B. Bryan[xviii] and the friars referred to a side chapel that was erected in 1688 on the south wall of the nave at the expense of Roger Lorcan, but it is possible that this was an earlier chapel, erected by his ancestors, and reconstructed by Roger or that the date of 1688 refers to the final date of completion.

Larkin chapel 1

Location of the ruins of the Lorcan Chapel at Meelick Church, parish of Meelick.

Meelick friary church south elevation

South elevation of the former friary church at Meelick, with the trace of the Lorcan chapel visible at the south-east corner.

The family maintained a close connection with the friars at Meelick with one of the family, Thady Lorcan, son of Nehemias Lorcan and Evelina Donnellan, appointed guardian of the friary or convent of Meelick on seven occasions; in 1680, 1681, 1693, 1700, 1702, 1706 and 1708. Described as a reputable theologian, an outstanding canonist and a preacher of repute, the friars recorded that he died at Meelick on 20 December 1716.[xix]

When, following the Williamite victory in the late seventeenth century, the ‘Banishment of Religious Act’ was enacted in 1698 whereby Roman Catholic Bishops and religious were to have departed from Ireland before May 1st of that year, one of those of the surrounding Roman Catholic gentry entrusted with the safe keeping of the friaries valuables in the hope of preserving them for future use was Doctor Simon Lorcan.[xx] He was highly regarded by the friars, who described him as a ‘medical doctor, a talented man, friend and benefactor’ of their friary.[xxi] This would appear to be the same Dr. Simon Lorcan mentioned in a pedigree of the Kelly family as married to Mary, sister of Anthony Kelly of Purcellstown, Co. Westmeath, daughter of Francis Kelly and granddaughter of one Loughlin Kelly.[xxii]

The friars managed to maintain a minor presence in the area nonetheless and it was the Meelick friars who recorded the death in 1719 of Captain Roger Lorcan, responsible for the construction of the Larkin family side chapel at Meelick, and who had served the Jacobite cause. He was buried in the same side chapel ‘which in 1688 he had taken care to erect.’[xxiii] The side chapel served as the burial place of several of the family including Denis or Donatus son of Bernard Lorcan who died in April of 1716, Doctor Simon Lorcan, who died in 1723 and Denis Lorcan, who was buried ‘in the chapel of his ancestors the Lorcans’ in March 1727.[xxiv]

One Bryan Lorcan was still seated in the parish of Kiltormer into the early eighteenth century when he was described as a gentleman ‘of Dangin, Co. Galway’ in his will of 1717.[xxv] It is unclear, however, if this is the same man who had been the subject of a transplantation order in the middle of the previous century or of a following generation at Dangin.

Various eighteenth century Lorcans

A number of the name from about east Galway found employment in the French army after the defeat of the Jacobite army of King James II in Ireland, those who left in immediate aftermath of the war known later as ‘the Wild Geese.’ One Denis Lorcan, whose place of origin was given as Kelleny, County Galway in Ireland (in all likelihood Killinehy, later known as the town of Eyrecourt) was a contemporary of both Captain Roger and Doctor Simon Lorcan.[xxvi] This Denis Lorcan was born about 1660, but like many young Roman Catholic men, sailed for France and spent most of his life in the service of the army of the French king. He married on the Continent and, having served over the course of many years in various regiments, he served with the rank of Lieutenant for thirty-six years in the Condé cavalry regiment. In later years what were described as ‘his great infirmities’ rendered him unfit for service and he died abroad in November of 1735.[xxvii]

Another of the name, one ‘Michael Larkan’ from ‘Portummeny, (ie. Portumna), Galway,’ enlisted in the French army in the Irish Brigade. He served in the cavalry troop of Francis Nugent in 1722 and was still serving there in 1729.[xxviii] Both Denis and Michael Lorcan’s service in a cavalry unit would suggest that both may have come from a branch of the family of some standing locally. This would apply in particular to Denis Lorcan, holding an officer’s commission in the cavalry.

Another of the Lorcan family, one Anthony Lorcan, is commemorated in a headstone which was still standing within the grounds of the former Lorcan side chapel at Meelick into the early twenty first century. The carved headstone, bearing the coat of arms of that individual above the partially legible inscription, was inscribed with the words ‘pray for the souls of Anthony Lorcan who dyed the 2- February 1746 aged 46 years……..souls of Margret Lorcan otherwise Mcdermot his wife Elezebeth a………’. The lower section of this inscription is carried on that part of the stone buried in the earth.

Conversions to Protestantism

A number of individuals of the name Larkin or Lorcan converted to Protestantism in the eighteenth century. In 1745 one Peter Lorcan of Barnaboy, County Galway converted. One Daniel Larkin of Dublin converted in 1761 but it is uncertain if he was descended of this family. One Laughlin Larkin of the parish of Eyrecourt conformed to Protestantism in 1765, in which year his address was also given as of Dublin. Patrick Lorcan of Graveshill converted in 1789. Another of the name, one Sarah Lorcan of Athenry, converted in 1786.[xxix]

Lorcan of Graveshill, parish of Kiltormer

Dangin, the residence of a principal branch of the Lorcans in the early eighteenth century, became obsolete as a townland name by the nineteenth century and equates with the small modern townland of Gortnalug, a deed of 1734 referring to the denomination as ‘Danging alias Gortnelog.’ The lands associated with the Lorcans of Dangin in the eighteenth century lay grouped together for the most part about the townlands of Gortnalug, Graveshill and Skenageehy in the parish of Kiltormer and in the adjoining townland of Barnaboy in the parish of Clontuskert. According to the ‘Books of Survey and Distribution’ Rory mcDuggin or mcDungin O Larkan held lands in some of these denominations in 1641 prior to the Rising of that year but no Lorcan was confirmed lands under the Act of Settlement in these denominations according to the same source. The Earl of Clanricarde, however, would appear to have been a principal beneficiary of lands under the Act in those townlands and about 1715 ‘Mr. Eyre and others’ appear in the ‘Dunsandle Papers’ as tenant of 76 acres in Skeaghnogeehy, 77 acres in Coolenegower and 192 acres in Dangin, then part of the Clanricarde estate concerning the Dowager Countess, widow of William the deceased 7th Earl of Clanricarde.

The family of Dangin appear to have been involved in a dispute with the Earl of Clanricarde over the title to their lands in the early eighteenth century. The dispute would appear to have been resolved in a deed dated 14th August 1742 in which the then Earl of Clanricarde and Bryan Lorcan ‘of Daggin’ came to an agreement. The deed recited ‘a Trust in a Patent of the family of Clanrickard and several declarations thereof by the said Earl that Bryan Lorcan and those under whom he derived were in possession of the lands following as their own Estate of Inheritance;’ ‘one hundred and nineteen acres of ye said lands of Daggin and seventy-seven acres in the Lands of Skeaghnegiehy.’ The same deed recorded that ‘in consideration of sixty pounds sterling paid or secured to be paid before the perfection of the said Deed by the said Bryan Lorcan to put a final end and period to all Law suits, disputes and Variances’ between both Clanricarde and Lorcan, the Earl ‘did give, grant alien release and confirm’ the same lands and any interest which he may have had in the same property unto the same Bryan Lorcan, his heirs and assigns.[xxx]

In 1748 a grant of probate was issued relating to the will of Bryan Lorcan of Dangin, County Galway. The deceased would appear to have been the same individual identified by the Franciscan friars at Meelick as Bernard (or Brian) Lorcan ‘de Crickana na Hougnidh,’ whose death they recorded as occurring in April of 1748 and who was buried in the Lorcan chapel at Meelick.[xxxi] This address would appear to be an anglicised version of the Irish place-name ‘Cruachán na huaighe’ or ‘Cnocán na huaighe’ which may translate as ‘the hillock of the grave’.[xxxii] As such, and given the alternative name of ‘Knockanewhoey’ noted for the denomination of Graveshill in the mid and late eighteenth century, it would appear to relate to the modern townland of Graveshill in the parish of Kiltormer, where the family of Dangin appear to have been seated into the nineteenth century.[xxxiii]

A branch of the Lorcans, apparently closely related to the family of Dangin, leased lands in the townland of Barnaboy in the early eighteenth century. The townland lay adjacent to Graveshill but in that part of the neighbouring parish of Clontuskert that lay within the barony of Longford. On the 23rd December 1748 Colonel John Eyre of Eyrecourt leased eighty six acres and twelve acres of rough course pasture in the townland of Barnaboy to Peter Lorcan of Barnaboy, Gentleman, ‘in as ample manner as the said Peter Lorcan and his father for many years held and enjoyed the same.’ It would appear likely that this Peter Lorcan may have been the same individual of Barnaboy who conformed to Protestantism in 1745. Almost six years later, in November of 1754 the same Peter Lorcan of Barnaboy, ‘for the consideration of two hundred pounds sterling’ ‘granted and made over’ unto Charles Seymour of Crowsnest, County Galway, Esquire, the same lands in Barnaboy ‘with a proviso or condition of Redemption for the said Peter Lorcan his heirs and assigns on paying the said two hundred pounds’ unto the same Charles Seymour.[xxxiv]

In a deed dated March of 1758 Joseph Lorcan and Bryan Lorcan, both of Graveshill, Gentlemen, leased to Admiral Peter Lawrence of Woodfield in the same county their lands in the denominations of ‘Daggin, Skeighnegiehy and Knockanehuohy otherwise called Graveshill containing about 260 acres profitable land plantation measure for the term of one year.’[xxxv] Eleven years later, both Lorcans were resident elsewhere. In June of that year, 1769, Joseph Lorcan, ‘late of Graveshill and now of Dunmore and Bryan Lorcan of Graveshill and now of Barnaboy, both in the County of Galway, Gentlemen’ entered into an indenture of lease and release whereby both men agreed to lease unto Walter Lawrence of Bellview ‘all that and those the lands commonly called Skeaghnagueehy in the possession of the said Walter Lawrence joining the lands of Dungan, Ballinmodagh and Ballydonagh containing seventy four acres one rood and fourteen perches Irish plantation measure situate in the parish of Kiltormer to have and to hold to the said Walter Lawrence his heirs and assigns and Maria Lawrence his daughter’ at the yearly rent of one hundred and thirty pounds one shilling and ten pence sterling.’ The same deeds of lease and release were witnessed by Ambrose Madden of Annaghcalla, John Colohan of Eyrecourt and Peter Lorcan of Barnaboy, Gentlemen.[xxxvi]

One of more prominent of the Lorcan family residing locally at the end of the eighteenth century was Joseph Lorcan of Graveshill, whose death in 1800 was recorded by the Meelick friars. He was likewise buried within the Lorcan Chapel.[xxxvii] This family’s seniority is further confirmed by its association with the Lorcan Chapel at Meelick in the early nineteenth century. In 1816 that chapel would be referred to on at least one occasion as ‘Lorkin’s chapel of Graves Hill.’[xxxviii]

Joseph Lorcan would appear to have been the last male of the Lorcan family to occupy Graveshill and was in financial difficulties prior to his death. He was brought to court by one Francis Lynch in the late eighteenth century, who was granted custody of Lorcan’s estate for a period of three years from 1st November 1796. By a court order dated 24th January 1797 the Lord Treasurer’s Remembrancer was required to let ‘by public cant to the highest and fairest bidder the lands of Graves-hill otherwise Knockanewhoey, in the county of Galway, the estate of Joseph Lorcan, Esquire.’[xxxix] After the death of Joseph Lorcan and apparently that of her husband, Alicia Lynch, widow, and others pursued Catherine Lorcan, Patrick Madden and Margaret, his wife, in the courts and pursuant to a decree of the High Court of Chancery of Ireland dated 5th March 1808, the lands of Graveshill were advertised to be sold in November of that year. In the following year, that part of Graveshill called ‘Sheaneaghy’ was also advertised to be sold in June of that year as a result of the same decree.

It is unclear if the Lorcan Chapel was strictly reserved initially for members of the immediate family. In the grounds of the ruined Madden Chapel at Meelick a dispute arose in the early eighteenth century in relation to the burial of individuals other than those of the original donor’s descendants or those of whom they approved and in that case the Bishop of Clonfert found in favour of the donor’s descendants.[xl] By the early decades of the nineteenth century the friars were facilitating the acquisition of burial plots by individuals unrelated to the principal branch of the Lorcans.[xli]

For details relating to the arms of a principal branch of this family, refer to ‘Larkin’ under ‘Heraldry.’


 

[i] Knox, H.T., The Early Tribes of Connaught: part 1, J.R.S.A.I., Fifth series, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1900, p. 349; Mannion, J., The Senchineoil and the Sogain: Differentiating between the Pre-Celtic and early Celtic Tribes of Central East Galway, J.G.A.H.S., Vol. 58, 2006, pp. 166, 168; O Donovan, J. (ed.), Leabhar na g-ceart or The Book of Rights, Dublin, M.H. Gill, for the Celtic Society, 1847, p. 106.

[ii] O Donovan, J., Tribes and Customs of Hy Many, commonly called O Kelly’s Country, Irish Archaeological Society, Dublin, 1843, pp. 39-41.

[iii] O Donovan, J., Tribes and Customs of Hy Many, commonly called O Kelly’s Country, Irish Archaeological Society, Dublin, 1843, pp. 24-59.

[iv] O Donovan, J., Tribes and Customs of Hy Many, commonly called O Kelly’s Country, Irish Archaeological Society, Dublin, 1843, p. 41.

[v] Annals of the Four Masters

[vi] Fiants Eliz. I

[vii] Fiants Eliz. I, modern townland of Coolcarta

[viii] Fiants Eliz I. Lysdoan, modern townland of Lisduan

[ix] Cal. Pat. 1 James I, p. 18

[x] Calendar of Patent Rolls of Chancery of Ireland, 7 James I, p. 162, LXVII; National Archives, Dublin, R.C.4/14 Repertories of Inquisitions (Chancery), Vol. 14, Counties Galway and Leitrim, Eliz.–Wm. III, p. 379.

[xi] Cal. Pat. 16 Jas. I p. 416

[xii] MacGiolla Choille, B. (ed.), Books of Survey and Distribution, Vol. III, County of Galway, Dublin, Stationary Office for the I.M.C., 1962, p. 197.

[xiii] MacGiolla Choille, B. (ed.), Books of Survey and Distribution, Vol. III, County of Galway, Dublin, Stationary Office for the I.M.C., 1962, pp. 179, 189. Several decades earlier one individual named Rory O Larkan held lands in both Craughwell and Rahin, in addition to Feagh.

[xiv] Simington, R. C., The Transplantation to Connacht 1654-1658, Irish Manuscripts Commission, 1970, p. 159.

[xv] Simington, R. C., The Transplantation to Connacht 1654-1658, Irish Manuscripts Commission, 1970.

[xvi] Giblin, C., OFM., Papers relating to Meelick Friary 1644-1731, Collectanea Hibernica No. 16, 1973.

[xvii] Meelick Chronicles

[xviii] Papers relating to Meelick friary 1644-1731’ Collectanea Hibernica Vol. 16 p.56

[xix] Papers relating to Meelick Friary 1644-1731, Cathaldus Giblin OFM, Collectanea Hibernica No. 16, 1973.

[xx] NLI, G.O. MS 5203, Copy of records of the Franciscan Convent of Meelick, Co. Galway, made by Fr. James Hynes in 1858. ‘27, 11, Clarissamus Dns Simon Lorcan Doctor Medicus vir magni ingenii amicus et benefactor hujus conventi, obdormerit in Dno 1723 at sepultus fuit in Sacela de Lorcani, R.I.P., Amen.’

[xxi] Fennessy, I., OFM, The Meelick Obituary and Chronicle (1623-1873) (with index), Archivium Hibernicum, Vol. LX, 2006-7, p. 351.

[xxii] NLI, G.O., MS 223-54 Betham Will Abstracts 9/76 (Vol. 231, p. 76). The will of Anthony Kelly of Purcellstown, Co. Westmeath was given as dated 4th September 1712 in the Kelly pedigree and proved in December 1712.

[xxiii] NLI, G.O. MS 5203, Copy of records of the Franciscan Convent of Meelick, Co. Galway, made by Fr. James Hynes in 1858

[xxiv] NLI, G.O. MS 5203, Copy of records of the Franciscan Convent of Meelick, Co. Galway, made by Fr. James Hynes in 1858.

[xxv] Vicars, A., Index to the Prerogative Wills of Ireland, 1536-1810, Dublin, 1897.

[xxvi] Another contemporary resident in France about that time, John Butler Madden, a descendant of the Maddens of Killinehy, described the newly established village of Eyrecourt at that time both as Eyrecourt and as Killinehy. Another alternative for Killeny may be Killevny, not distant from Killinehy.

[xxvii] O Hannrachain, E., ‘Some Wild Geese of the West’, appendix (Galway applicants for admission to the Hôtel Royal des Invalides).

[xxviii] Ó hAnnracháin, E., Two score Galway Troopers in France, J.G.A.H.S., Vol. LV, 2003, p. 70.

[xxix] Byrne, E. and Chamney, A. (ed.), The Convert Rolls, the Calendar of the Convert Rolls, 1703-1838 with Fr. Wallace Clare’s annotated list of converts, 1703-78, Dublin, IMC, 2005, p. 151.

[xxx] Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Lib. 79, p. 114, No. 54885; Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Lib. 109, pp. 479-450, No. 76744.

[xxxi] NLI, G.O. MS 5203, Copy of records of the Franciscan Convent of Meelick, Co. Galway, made by Fr. James Hynes in 1858; Index to Clonfert Wills 1663-1857.

[xxxii] Cruachán would appear to be utilised elsewhere within east Galway as a reference to a small hill. The word would appear to form the basis of Crockaunduff, (pronounced locally as ‘crookawndoo’) a local placename given on the 1838 Ordnance Survey Map as the location of a graveyard, about a gravel pit and on a sandy hill near the side of the public road, in the townland of Killnaborris in the parish of Clonfert.

[xxxiii] Graveshill is elsewhere described as ‘near Eyrecourt’, where a Mr. Laurence Madden resided, who, circa 1840 ‘on his return from the West Indies, where he had gone in 1810 or 12, came into possession of some of the lands of his ancestors in the county of Galway.’(Genealogical and Historical Record of the O Maddens of Hy Many and their descendants, T.M. Madden, Dublin, 1894.)

[xxxiv] Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Lib. 174, p. 293, No. 116216.

[xxxv] Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Lib. 191, p. 288, No. 128027.

[xxxvi] Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Lib. 276, p. 200, No. 177049.

[xxxvii] NLI, G.O. MS 5203, Copy of records of the Franciscan Convent of Meelick, Co. Galway, made by Fr. James Hynes in 1858. ‘1800, 27, Obdormivit in Domino Josephus Lorcan de Graveshill anno. 1800. Sepultus est in Sacello de Lorcans.’

[xxxviii] Fennessy, I., OFM, The Meelick Obituary and Chronicle (1623-1873) (with index), Archivium Hibernicum, Vol. LX, 2006-7, p. 373, p. 342. ‘Mr. Arnold Kelly of Eyrecourt, a revenue officer, has by permission of the Provincial taken a burial place in Lorkin’s chapel of Grave’s Hill, next the angle that stands of said pleace. Dated this 19th day of July 1816. Brother Mathias Creagh, Guardian.’ The same guardian certified in March of 1815 the purchase by John Nowlan of Kilmachugh in Meelick of a burial plot ‘in the farthest end, on the right hand of the chapel called after Mr. Lorcan of Graveshill.’

[xxxix] The Dublin Evening Post, Tues. Feb. 7th 1797, p. 1, Sat. Sept. 24th 1808, p. 1, Sat. June 10th 1809, p. 1.

[xl] Giblin, C., OFM, Papers relating to Meelick Friary 1644-1731, Collectanea Hibernica, No. 16, B. Millett OFM (general editor), Naas, Leinster Leader ltd., 1973, p. 73.

[xli] Fennessy, I., OFM, The Meelick Obituary and Chronicle (1623-1873) (with index), Archivium Hibernicum, Vol. LX, 2006-7, pp. 326-435. ‘Thomas Kelly, a private of the Galway Militia, has purchased a burying place between the Nowlan and Bryan Horan of Munini on the same side of the chapel. Dated this 3rd day of April 1814. Mathias Creagh, Guardian. Paid for said burying place, one pound.’ (p. 343.) ‘I certify that John Nowlan of Kilmacrew has purchased a burying place from me in the farthest end, on the right hand of the chapel called after Mr. Lorcan of Graves-hill. Given under my hand this 7th day of March 1815, for which he paid one pound two shillings and nine pence. Br. Mathias Creagh, Guardian.’ (p. 342.) Also, ‘Rodger Walsh has purchased a burying place within the chapel called Lorcan’s chapel joining the arch, January 1818. M. Creagh, Guardian. Patt Mulhair has purchased the place next to him on the right hand in said chapel. Mathias Creagh. Bryan Horan of Muneeni has taken the next place to Rodger Walsh the abbey wall, January 3rd 1818. Mathias Creagh.’ (p. 333.)